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Cerebrovascular Diseases

Cerebrovascular diseases are a group of diseases that occur with blockage or bleeding of the vessels feeding the brain and give symptoms related to the damaged brain region.
The condition that occurs with the narrowing and occlusion of the brain vessels is called ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and the spread of blood in the brain by tearing the vessel is called cerebral hemorrhage.

According to statistics, cerebrovascular diseases rank third among the causes of death after cancer and heart diseases, and first in terms of morbidity.

Among the neurological diseases of the adult period, cerebrovascular diseases constitute the most common and most important group of diseases. Epidemiological data in Western societies show that 0.2% of societies have a stroke every year. One-third of cases die within a year, making stroke the third leading cause of death. In one third of the cases, varying degrees of sequelae remain due to stroke, and this rate puts stroke in the category of the disease that causes the most disability and dependence.

What Are The Risk Factors?

Unchangeable Risk Factors
Age: Cerebrovascular diseases occur more frequently and progress more severely in older ages.
Gender: It is more common in men.
Genetic Factors: Cerebrovascular disease is more common in some populations.
Changeable risk factors
Hypertension: Uncontrolled hypertension can cause damage, plaque formation and narrowing of cerebral vessels. High blood pressure can also cause blood vessels to rupture, leading to bleeding into the brain. With regular antihypertensive therapy and diet, it is possible to significantly reduce the frequency of cerebrovascular events.

Hyperlipidemia: High blood fats (cholesterol and triglycerides ) are a well-known risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Diet, exercise and, in some cases, medications are needed to correct this condition.

Diabetes: Uncontrolled high blood sugar may cause impairment in vascular structures and blood clotting functions, causing cerebrovascular accident. Good diabetes control is very important.

Sedentary life: It is known that lack of movement and exercise causes cerebrovascular diseases.
Smoking: It is the most common among the cerebrovascular risk factors.
Alcohol: Frequent and excessive amounts of alcohol can cause heart rhythm disorders and vascular wall damage.
Heart diseases: Heart valve diseases, rhythm disorders, failures can cause cerebrovascular disease with clot formation and embolism.

What Are The Symptoms?

Transient headache that lasts for a few hours
Vision loss
Speech disorders
Memory Problems
Numbness in one half of the body
No loss of strength

What Are The Reasons?

Cerebral thrombosis: Responsible for about half of cerebrovascular events. Atherosclerosclerotic plaques accumulate in the vein and blockage of the vein occurs. In this type of patients, neurological deficit develops gradually. It starts with a headache complaint. Edema develops in the affected area, usually within 72 hours.

Cerebral embolism: clot, air, fat, tumor part etc. from extracranial veins. It occurs as a result of substances blocking the cerebral vessels. Embolism develops without symptoms in a very short time, such as a few seconds or a minute. It often occurs as a result of diseases such as valve diseases and atrial fibrillation.
Intracranial hemorrhage: Causes abrupt cessation of blood flow. The appearance of signs and symptoms occurs in a very short time. Factors causing bleeding; bleeding disorders such as leucemia, aplastic anemia, hemophilia, anticoagulant therapy, acute infections, vascular disorders such as diabetes and aneurysms, head traumas, tumors.

What Are The Diagnostic Methods?

The information provided by the patient and their relatives is very valuable in diagnosing cerebrovasculardisease ina patient presenting with disease symptoms. For this reason, having people who know the development of the event next to the patient helps the diagnosis to be made more quickly.
Imaging tests to be performed following the examination of the patient are arranged in order of necessity. Imaging examinations to be performed following the examination of the patient are arranged according to the order of necessity.

Cranial tomography is the most commonly used and very helpful examination method for diagnosis. In some patients, cranial MRI and angiography may also be required, depending on the situation. Blood tests and cardiac examinations to find the cause of the disease are also completed at the time of application.

What Are The Treatment Methods of Hydrocephalus?

Effective treatment of the disease should begin as quickly as possible, as in the treatment of a heart attack. Clot dissolving methods to open vascular occlusion, which can be applied in patients who are brought in the first three or six hours, can give very satisfactory results in the treatment. In patients who arrive later, treatments to prevent vascular congestion, and if there is edema in the brain, treatments to eliminate this situation are applied.

Surgical treatments are rarely applied, which vary approximately in bleeding conditions. In addition, other cardiac and hematological systemic problems that cause this condition should also be eliminated. In the next stage, rehabilitation interventions are applied to help patients regain their lost functions.

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