Problems During The Menstural Period
The menstrual cycle lasts an average of 28 days. If this period is prolonged or shortened or bleeding occurs between two periods, menstrual irregularity is in question. Or if the menstrual period skips two or three periods, it means that there is menstrual irregularity in the same way. In some cases, menstruation ends, except for reasons such as pregnancy or menopause. This is called amenorrhea. Menstrual irregularity is also caused by stress, hormonal disorders, birth control pills, myoma in the uterus, presence of polyps, polycystic ovary syndrome, etc. For its treatment, lifestyle changes (diet and regular exercise), hormones such as estrogen or progestin, and painkillers are used. If there is a condition that causes menstrual irregularity (polyps, myomas, etc.), their treatment is also performed and menstruation is arranged.
PMS (Premenstrual Tension Syndrome)
It is a syndrome with somatic and psychological symptoms seen in the luteal phase of the menstrual period. It is the situation in which a feeling of tension occurs in the individual starting from seven days before the menstrual period begins. While the quality of life of some women is highly affected by severe problems, it varies in moderate and mild severity in some women. Physical symptoms are headache, abdominal pain, back pain, weight gain, chest swelling. Psychological symptoms are sensory changes such as irritability, tension, depression, and depression. This situation negatively affects the quality of life of individuals. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Premenstrual Tension Syndrome (PMS) treatment methods is carried out in the form of a combination of lifestyle changes and regulation, pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological treatment methods.
Dysmenorrhea (Painful Menstruation)
As a result of the chemicals called prostaglandin affecting the uterine muscles, contraction occurs. Contractions affect blood flow and the connection of oxygen to the uterus. These contractions cause pain during menstruation. During menstruation, pain in the form of throbbing or cramping is seen in the lower abdomen. This situation starts about 1-3 days before the menstrual period and continues for 3-4 days after the menstrual period. While some women start from the first occurrence of menstruation, some women may appear in the later years. It can be severe and painful, similar to labor pains. For the treatment of painful menstruation, non-pharmacological treatment methods other than pharmacological treatment methods such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, birth control pills are also used.
It occurs with the decrease in ovulation, which is mostly age-related in women, and with the decrease in female hormones such as progesterone and estrogen. Late menopause may occur, or early menopause may occur if it occurs earlier than expected. It is possible to say that the average age range of menopause is 46-48 years. While a woman's menopause before the age of 40 is defined as early menopause, entering menopause around the age of 52 in our country can be considered as late menopause. Symptoms of menopause include menstrual irregularity, hot flashes, headaches, irritable mood, anxiety disorder. In the blood tests performed by the doctor, the diagnosis is made by looking at the LH and FSH values.
Childhood and Adolescence Gynecological Problems (Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology)
Gynecological problems for women can begin between the ages of 0-14 years. For gynecological diseases of this age group, pediatricians and physicians specializing in adolescent gynecology provide support.
It is a specialty that deals with health problems in the uterus, ovary, vulva and pelvic region of children and adolescents in childhood and adolescence. Menstruation in women can occur between the ages of 10 and 15. In adolescence, a woman may experience excessive menstruation, menstrual irregularity, ovarian cysts, painful menstruation, dysfunctional menstruation, etc. Problems are treated by an obstetrician with a specialty called adolescent gynecology (adolescent gynecology). Excessive hair growth and problems related to breast development are also in the expertise of this field. In some cases, this gynecology area examination is also required for gynecological problems that may be congenital or inherited, developmental in adolescents or childhood. Child and adolescent gynecologist is needed for many areas such as menstrual problems, vaginal structure deformities (congenital or developmental some skin boils, etc.), anomalies and pains, ovarian problems. Obstetricians recommend that the first gynecology examination be between the ages of 13 and 15. It is important to follow the examination and developmental follow-up with the onset of menstruation in adolescents.