Pericardial diseases are another disease that is seen from time to time in our patients who come to the cardiology outpatient clinic of our hospital. The pericardium is the sac in which our heart resides.
What Are Pericardial Diseases?
The pericardium is the sac that prevents the heart from suddenly expanding and reaching the heart for infection. Pericardial diseases can also be called cardiac membrane diseases. There are many types of pericardial diseases, and these diseases are pericardial cyst, pericardial defect, pericardial diverticulum, pericardial effusion, pericardial inflammation, constructive pericarditis and pericardial tumors.
Pericardial cysts form between the heart and the diaphragm. They are usually not a problem, but may show symptoms if they put pressure on other cardiac structures.
Pericardial diverticula are rare anomalies and may be congenital or acquired. They can be confused with pericardial cysts. They are typically at cardiophrenic angle levels. Its size and shape may vary with body position and breathing movements.
It is the absence of a small part or all of the pericardium. It is usually partially absent. In some patients, it may be seen together with other heart-related malformations and bronchogenic cyst and hyatal hernia. Absence of congenital pericardium is a rare anomaly.
It is the accumulation of fluid in the cardiac membrane. Many diseases such as kidney failure, trauma, heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis can cause pericardial effusion. It can surround the entire heart, and it can also be seen in a limited size in patients who have undergone heart surgery.
The patient's complaint may vary according to inflammation, and some patients may not even have symptoms. Some traumas can cause pericarditis.
It is the condition of thickening and hardening of the heart sac. While the causes were tuberculosis in the previous periods, the most common causes are radiation therapy after heart surgeries. Rare causes include infection, tissue diseases, anemia and cancer.
Heart sac tumors or cancers are rare problems. However, cancers related to organs close to the heart, breast cancer, lung cancer or lymphoma can damage the heart membrane.
What Are The Symptoms of Pericardial Diseases?
Pericardial diseases may also have similar symptoms as diseases that can be similar and related to each other. Symptoms of pericardial cysts may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitation. Pericardial diverticulum pain may last for several days in the lower abdomen. Effusion symptoms may appear as diarrhea, vomiting, fever, chest pain, muscle pain, shortness of breath and fatigue. Pericardial inflammation has symptoms similar to effusion and the patient may complain of shortness of breath, pain, fatigue, fever and palpitations. Dyspnea, cough, weakness, weight loss and chest pain are also symptoms of constructive pericarditis.
Diagnosis of Pericardial Diseases
For pericardial diseases, ECG, ECHO, EMAR, TSE images, CT for effusion and pericardial fluid, MRI techniques for diverticulum are important and used in diagnosis in terms of correct diagnosis and treatment application according to diagnosis. If necessary, a diagnosis can be made for pericardial tumors by biopsy, cytological and immunological evaluation.
Treatment of Pericardial Diseases
Pericardial diseases occur with drug treatment or surgical method depending on their types, and in some cases with postoperative drug support. Surgical procedures take place in the form of removing a part of the pericardium and draining the fluid around the heart.
Our cardiologist will help you by applying the specified diagnostic methods and recommending the most appropriate treatment method after diagnosing the disease.