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Movement Disorders

Movement disorder is defined as abnormal movements seen during voluntary or involuntary movements. Although they are grouped under different groups with the affected region and characteristics, movement disorders are rarely limited to one species, often several species coexist.

Temporary and Developmental Movement Disorders

Sleep myoclonus
Paroxysmal tonic upgaze of infancy
Benign paroxysmalt aorticollis
Benign diopathic dystonia of the infant
Sandifer's syndrome
Paroxysmal Movement Disorders
Tic and tourettes syndrome
Motor stereotypes
Hyperkinetic and Hypokinetic Movement Disorders


Tics are defined as nonrhythmic, stereotypical, short-term, seemingly aimless, sudden onset, holding one or several muscle groups, involuntary movements (motor tic) or sounds (vocal tic).
Normal motor movement and part of the sounds occur in inappropriate environments improperly. They are quite stereotypical and different from other movement disorders in that they can be suppressed voluntarily for a short time. Unlike other movement disorders, tics may be seen although the severity and frequency of sleep decreases. It is common enough to be seen in 5% of school-age children. As age progresses, tics tend to draw a plateau and disappear.

It can be seen in three types.

Temporary tics: Temporary tics are the most common and single muscle group in childhood. It most often appears as blinking, throat clearing sound, head bowing or facial movements. Increases with stress, disappears in sleep. It can be suppressed voluntarily for a while. It disappears within weeks or months. No treatment is required.

Chronic motor tics: These are tics that last for more than a year and hold 1-3 muscle groups. It can last a lifetime. Tourettes syndrome is a familial/ genetic disease in which various verbal and motor tics are seen together. The disease begins between the ages of 2-15 years. The four major symptoms of the disease are motor tics, vocal tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit, and hyperactivity. Some of the symptoms appear as you get older.

Motor or vocal tics: If they are at a level that will affect the child's social and academic relationships, medication is required. In the first step, the concerns of the family and the child should be eliminated and psychological support should be given.


It is described as an involuntary, fluid-continuous, speed and direction variable hyperkinetic movement disorder. Although it is seen in all parts of the body, there are areas where it is characteristically affected in certain diseases and disorders. Choreic movements get worse during voluntary actions. If the amplitude of this involuntary movement is large and it holds the proximal of the extremity, it is called ballism.
Choreic and ballistic movements sometimes coexist or may follow each other during the course of a disease. If half of the body is affected, it is called hemiballism.

The person sometimes makes a half-intentional movement (such as touching his/her own face) to mask the involuntary choreic movement.


Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary, simultaneous contractions of muscles working opposite each other, leading to repetitive involuntary movements or temporary or permanent abnormal postures. While dystonic movements increase with fatigue and stress, they decrease and disappear in sleep.

It has three important components.
A certain pattern, muscle group involvement
Movement - body specificity
Touching certain parts of the body can end dystonic spasm

A disease that shows a significant improvement with progressive L-dopa that starts in childhood is typically dystonia-related gait disorder in the feet, with more pronounced findings over time, better in the morning and progressive deterioration in the afternoon.


Ataxia is the inability to perform voluntary movements properly and in a balanced manner. It may be caused by involvement in the cerebellum and its connections, spinal cord lesions, peripheral sensory losses, and disorders involving the major input system from the frontal lobes to the cerebellum, or pathologies in combination with these systems.

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