Respiratory Tract Infections ın Children
Respiratory tract infections in children are a very common disorder, especially for children in school and nursery. In respiratory infections, it is very important to wear a mask, disinfect the hands, and pay attention to cleaning and hygiene to protect from contagion. It is necessary to provide hygiene training to children by parents, to control high fever and to ensure that plenty of fluid is consumed to prevent dehydration.
Respiratory tract infections are examined in two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
The upper respiratory tract is the nose, sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Sinuses refer to the entire upper respiratory system, including the throat area. Complaints such as runny nose, sore throat and cough are seen. Diseases such as colds, colds, epiglottitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis (sore throat), sinusitis (sinus infection) are upper respiratory tract infections.
Epiglottitis is a disease that occurs as a result of inflammation of the epiglottis. The epiglottis is at the bottom of the tongue. Its function here is to prevent nutrients and fluids from descending into the lungs.
Epiglottitis in children is accompanied by fever, inflammation in the throat, wheezing, etc.
Pharyngitis is an upper respiratory tract infection with symptoms such as dry cough, burning in the throat, which is common especially in children in winter.
Sinusitis is one of the common upper respiratory tract infections in children, where nasal congestion and discharge are intense. Children have symptoms such as intense nasal discharge, green or yellow nasal discharge and headache.
Croup (laryngitis or flabbiness) is an upper respiratory tract infection commonly encountered in children. It occurs as a result of swelling and inflammation of the larynx. It starts with a muffled and coarse cough.
Physical examination is performed primarily for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. In the physical examination, the general health status is determined by the doctor by performing examinations such as heart and lung listening, throat and ear control, etc. If the doctor deems it necessary, additional tests such as blood test and chest x-ray, allergy test may be requested. The treatment process is generally carried out with drug support, antibiotic initiation, and oxygen support if necessary. Depending on the severity of the disease, hospitalization may be required.
Respiratory Tract Infections
In respiratory tract infections, general examination of the pediatrician, measurement of fever, detection of inflammation in the ears, resting of the lungs and heart, resting of abdominal movements are performed. If the doctor deems it necessary, he/she carries out the treatment process of the disease by requesting a blood test and chest X-ray. Children under three years of age have cough, runny nose and weakness with mild fever. Children older than three years have a higher fever (40◦). The lower respiratory tract is the trachea, bronchi and lungs. Diseases such as chest infection, bronchiolitis (usually a lung infection in children), and inflammation of the lungs are lower respiratory tract infections.
Bronchiolitis can be defined as inflammation of the lining of the bronchioles. It is common in children between the 2nd and 24th months. They are very small passages through which air travels to the lungs. These passages are narrower in babies. Here, narrowing occurs as a result of inflammation. The treatment process is carried out with oxygen support, antibiotics and liquid support.
Pneumonia occurs as a result of inflammation of the air sacs in one or both of the lungs. It is a disease that occurs as a result of inflammation of bronchioles and alveoli. It is mostly seen in children at the age of 2-3 years.
In lower respiratory tract infections, outpatient treatment should be given to children and if the disease progresses, hospitalization should be provided and the treatment and care process should be carried out with the support of a professional health team.