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Gynecological Cancer Surgery

What Is Cervical Cancer?

In women entering menopause, the incidence increases with the end of the menstrual period. It is also called endometrial cancer. There are some tests that need to be done in order to make a diagnosis. A biopsy is performed by taking a tissue from the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus. Diagnosis is made according to the biopsy report sent to the pathology. Tissue can also be taken by methods such as dilatation or abortion and pathological examination can be performed. Another diagnostic method is hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy is performed, that is, examinations are performed by entering the uterus from the vaginal area with the help of a device.
For the diagnosis of uterine cancer, it is recommended that women, especially after a certain age, have a gynecological examination every year. Again, overweight can be seen as a risk factor for uterine cancer. Weight loss can be expressed as one of the methods of healthy and regular nutrition protection.

What Are The Symptoms of Uterine Cancer?

Unusual menstrual bleeding
Vaginal bleeding after menopause,
Differences in vaginal discharge,
Pain during sex
Blood in the urine.

What Is Cervical Cancer (Cervix)?

The cervix is the area between the end of the vaginal line and the uterus. In case of formation of cancerous cells in the cervix area, cervical cancer is diagnosed. Treatment methods in cervical cancers are radiation, chemotherapy and/or surgical operation.
Ovarian cancer (ovarian) is a disease that occurs due to the formation of cancerous cells in the ovaries that are present in women. Treatment of cancerous cells in the ovaries in the pelvic region is mostly performed with chemotherapy and surgical operation.
Tubal cancer (tuba uterina), unlike ovarian cancers, is the formation of cancerous cells in the fallopian tubes (pelvic region). The fallopian tubes are located at the point that connects the ovaries with the uterus and establishes the connection between them. Vaginal bleeding may present with symptoms such as blood in the vaginal discharge. As in ovarian cancer, its treatment is performed by surgical operation or chemotherapy treatment.

Treatment of Uterine Cancer

Hysterectomy is performed for uterine cancer and the patient's uterus is removed with open or closed surgery. The doctor decides according to the patient's condition or the spread of the cancer. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy or hormonal treatment can be carried out by the doctor depending on the situation.

Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy is applied after the surgery depending on the suitability of the cancerous area and its curability with radiation. It is a method that can be used for endometrial cancers. Radiotherapy is used to prevent recurrence of the disease after surgery. If the patient's health is not suitable for a hysterectomy or similar major surgery, radiotherapy can be applied as the main treatment method.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the process of killing cancer cells using chemicals. Chemotherapy can be done in different ways. Intravenous chemotherapy is the administration of chemicals to the patient through a vein. Oral chemotherapy is the use of chemotherapy pills by the patient. Using both, the treatment process can also be carried out in a mixed manner. There are some side effects of chemotherapy treatment. Complications such as feeling sick and tired, hair loss, itching on the skin, diarrhea or constipation may develop.

Hormone therapy: Hormone treatments are used to slow down the growth of cancer cells. Endocrine (hormone) treatments are also used in the treatment of the uterus, cervix or some other types of cancer. Hormone treatments are done with two different hormones. Estrogen therapy is loaded with estrogen so that the cancer is not slowed down. Progesterone therapy is loaded with progestin to slow the cancer. Hormone treatments are also used to alleviate the effects of menopause and to reduce the weakening of bone structure.

Hysterectomy: Hysterectomy is the procedure of removing the uterus with a surgical operation. There is no recurrence of menstruation and pregnancy after the removal of the uterus for women. In this respect, after other treatment methods are tried, the uterus is finally removed. Hysterectomy is performed in non-cancerous myomas, heavy and unsolvable menstrual bleeding, uterine sagging, uterine cancers, cervical cancers or ovarian cancers. Hysterectomy can be performed in three different ways. Laparoscopic hysterectomy is the process of removing the uterus from the upper part of the vagina by laparoscopic method with the closed method. Vaginal hysterectomy is the process of removing the uterus vaginally by opening an incision from the upper side of the vagina. In an abdominal hysterectomy, the uterus is removed through an incision in the lower abdomen.

HPV infection - HPV vaccine: The HPV virus, known as a sexually transmitted disease, is a disease that occurs due to infection in the epithelial cells of the human papilloma virus. Since the HPV virus causes cervical cancer, it is recommended by doctors that women take the necessary precautions to prevent the disease by getting HPV vaccine at certain doses and intervals. For the 10-12 age group, two doses of HPV vaccine should be given at 6 or 12 month intervals. Three doses of HPV vaccine are recommended for young people between the ages of 15-25. The most effective periods of vaccination are in the 10-15 age range. However, women up to the age of 45 can get the HPV vaccine. There are currently no studies on HPV vaccine after the age of 45.

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