Diagnosis and Treatment Methods In Cardiology
The correct diagnosis method brings the correct treatment method. That's why using the right methods to treat the disease is the most important part. The diagnostic methods applied in our hospital's cardiology outpatient clinic are blood test, ECG, ECHO, Holter ECG, holter blood pressure, EXERTION test, coronary angiography as both a diagnostic and treatment method, coronary interventions from the wig (PTCA, stent), cardiac catheterization and temporary and permanent pacemaker methods.
This diagnostic method is a method used to diagnose many heart diseases, especially heart rhythm disorder. The patient is placed in a lying position, latches are attached to the forehead and ankles, and wired electrodes connected to the EKG device are attached to the chest, arms and legs. Thus, the number and rhythm of the patient's heartbeat are measured and then the data is taken from the ECG device.
In other words, echocardiography is an ultrasonographic diagnostic method that is used easily due to the lack of a radiation application, and the patient is first placed on the left side. Gel is applied to the chest of the patient and the ECHO head is circulated in the heart area.
This diagnostic method, which is applied to find irregularity and arrhythmia in heartbeats, is a 24-hour method. Electrodes connected to the recorder are attached to the body and measure the heartbeat for 24 hours.
Holter Blood Pressure
This diagnostic method, which is applied to measure hypertension and hypotension, takes 24 hours. While the patient continues his daily activities in his daily life, the portable electronic device that measures and records his blood pressure is wrapped in the arm and stays with the patient for 24 hours.
In this diagnostic method, the patient is taken to a device such as a treadmill, barefoot and topless. Electrodes connected with cables to the effort device are attached to the chest area. Heart rate and rhythm measurement is followed on the screen connected to the device. Every three minutes, the front of the belt is raised higher, providing a slope type floor. If the patient feels tired, it can be terminated. Although it varies from person to person, it can take between 10 and 30 minutes.
This application, which is one of the diagnostic methods and also known as cardiac catheterization, is to keep imaging records by giving contrast agent to the vein. The patient should fast for 4 to 12 hours before administration. Before the procedure to be performed in the groin or arm, these areas are numbed and a cannula is placed in the vein in the area. The catheter, that is, the thin tube, is delivered to the heart cavities and the pressure is recorded. Arteries are visualized and a film is recorded by giving a contrast agent, a kind of medical dye. With this method, heart problems in the patient are diagnosed.
This application, which is both a diagnosis and a treatment method, is aimed to open the occluded vein by entering the arm with the wire procedure for treatment. In addition, as a diagnostic method, vascular occlusion is checked and it is checked whether a more serious treatment is required or whether there is another disease.
The balloon is inflated in the veins opened after coronary angiography, which is a very successful treatment method. This balloon pushes the plaques that cause clogging against the walls and blood flow is provided. It is performed under local anesthesia while the patient is awake. After the application, a day's hospitalization may be required.
If the balloon inflated vessel is not sufficiently patented and there is still difficulty in blood flow, stenting is performed. A stent may be required according to the narrowed area in the balloon inflated vein. The stent can be thought of as a steel wire mesh and placed on top of the inflated balloon. In case of recurrence of obstruction, balloon and stent application can be performed again. Usually, the patient is taken to the intensive care unit after the application and it is an application that requires an average of two days of hospitalization.
Temporary and Permanent Pacemakers
Temporary pacemakers are inserted to prevent complicated conditions after arrhythmia treatment, tachycardia, heart attack and heart surgery. In cases where permanent pacemaker is required, it can be used until permanent pacemaker is inserted. It has a large generator and is connected to the heart by wires. It is located outside the body.
For the battery to be inserted into the patient in the catheter laboratory, the cable is taken to the heart through the groin or arm area and connected to the battery.
Permanent pacemaker is applied in permanent rhythm disorders. Whichever arm the patient uses more, the battery is placed on the opposite side. It is usually done under local anesthesia. The patient taken to the catheter laboratory is put to sleep with intravenous drugs and the cables are advanced to the heart through the vein with local anesthesia and the pacemaker battery is placed in the pocket opened under the muscles. More advanced (ICD and CTR-D) pacemakers are also used for this method, which is also applied in heart failure.