Anesthesia and Reanimation
What Is Anesthesia?
It refers to the applications carried out to increase patient comfort and safety with a team of anesthesiologists and reanimation specialists and anesthesia technicians and technicians to prevent the patient from feeling pain during anesthesia, surgery or various other medical interventions. The meaning of the word is numbness.
While anesthesiologists reveal this numbness, they encounter many consequences of this situation and try to control these results. The human body is like a machine in which its activities continue in a balance. Terminating and restarting certain activities of this machine may actually explain the anesthesia mechanism to some extent.
Surgical interventions cannot be performed without anesthetic effective drugs. The working logic of anesthesia comes from its suppressive effect on the central and peripheral nervous system.
The nervous system consists of the brain, peripheral and spinal nerve structures. Messages originating from the brain and returning to the brain are carried by the neural network that is distributed throughout the body. In anesthesia application, the normal operation of this communication system is prevented and the transmission of pain warnings to the brain is prevented.
Anesthesia and surgery can cause rapid changes in vital functions. For this reason, the anesthesiologist monitors the physiological variables of the patients using anesthesia equipment and devices during all kinds of applications. Despite today's technological possibilities, the anesthesiologist's observation still forms the basis of monitoring.
Patient Positions and Systemic Effects in Anesthesia
Different patient positions for surgical procedure in anesthesia have many systemic effects. Different positions can be applied for many different purposes. Possible situations that require a position to be given to a patient;
Surgical Procedure Applied: The patient should be given the position that makes it possible to perform the surgical procedure in the most appropriate way. For example, a prone position is required for a patient to be operated for lumbar disc herniation (herniated disc).
Prevention of Complications: Special systemic effects of positions can be useful in preventing complications. For example, a patient with high blood pressure may be placed in a semi-sitting position to ensure that the head is above the heart level and to prevent an increase in intracranial pressure.
Regional Anesthesia Application: Especially in spinal or epidural anesthesia application, a suitable position should be given to the patient so that the procedure can be performed easily.
The most appropriate position for a patient;
It is the position with the least effects on the respiratory system and circulatory system.
It is a position that will not cause nerve and body injuries.
It is the position where all protruding areas are protected by soft supports and pressure is prevented.
It is the position where there is no uncontrolled pressure on organs such as ears, eyes, nose.
What Are The Types of Anesthesia?
Which type of anesthesia will be applied to the patient is decided by considering the type of operation, the general health status of the person, the length of the procedure and the type of procedure to be applied.
There are many different subtypes that it is divided into depending on the way it is applied. Among these, the methods used extensively in the clinical environment can be performed in 3 different ways as general, regional (regional) and local anesthesia. In addition, it is possible to perform operations under sedoanalgesia (sedation+analgesia).